Using LaTeX

LaTeX is a markup language widely used for the communication and publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics, physics, computer science, and economics. Its syntax is used by Learnosity as the primary method of rendering math and chemistry expressions.

The only place where authors are required to enter LaTeX is in the Template area of math and chemistry questions, and in the Math Editor (accessed from the Rich Text Editor). You can use the LaTeX Keypad to enter LaTeX.

Should you wish to enter raw LaTeX, below you will find a list of useful math and chemistry LaTeX expressions.

LaTeX Shortcuts

LaTeX expression Default title keyboard shortcut Symbol
x x x x
y y y y
z z z z
a a a a
b b b b
c c c c
d d d d
f f f f
\text{abc} abc Shift + Opt / Alt* + abc abc
Prime/Arcminute '
Double Prime/Arcsecond "
\$Dollars$
+ Plus + +
- Minus - -
\times Multiply * ×
\div Divide Shift + Opt / Alt* + / ÷
\pm Plus or minus Shift + Opt / Alt* + pm ±
= Equals = =
> Greater than > >
< Less than < <
\ge Greater than or equal to Shift + Opt / Alt* + gte
\le Less than or equal to Shift + Opt / Alt* + lte
\neq Not equal to Shift + Opt / Alt* + ne
\approx Approximately equal to Shift + Opt / Alt* + ae
\perp Perpendicular to Shift + Opt / Alt* + pr \perp
\propto Proportional to Shift + Opt / Alt* + pl \propto
| Vertical line |
( Group in parentheses Shift + Opt / Alt* + rd \left(\right)
[ Group in brackets Shift + Opt / Alt* + sr \left[\right]
{ Group in curly braces Shift + Opt / Alt* + cr \left\{\right\}
\left[\right) Group in odd braces \left[\right)
\left(\right] Group in odd braces \left(\right]
^ Exponent ^ x^{}
^2 Square Shift + Opt / Alt* + pt x^2
_ Subscript _ x_{}
/ Fraction / \frac{x}{}
\frac{}{} Mixed Fraction Shift + Opt / Alt* + mf x\frac{}{}
: Ratio : :
% Percentage % %
\abs Absolute value Shift + Opt / Alt* + abs \abs{}
\sqrt Square root Shift + Opt / Alt* + sq \sqrt{}
\nthroot Nth root Shift + Opt / Alt* + nsq \sqrt[]{}
\int_{}^{} Integral Shift + Opt / Alt* + int \int_{}^{}
\mathbf{\underset{\sim}{}} Vector Shift + Opt / Alt* + vec \mathbf{\underset{\sim}{}}
\mathbb{R} Real number set Shift + Opt / Alt* + rea \mathbb{R}
\alpha Alpha Shift + Opt / Alt* + al \alpha
\gamma Gamma Shift + Opt / Alt* + ga \gamma
\pi Pi Shift + Opt / Alt* + pi \pi
\Pi Pi (uppercase) Shift + Opt / Alt* + upi \Pi
\sigma Sigma Shift + Opt / Alt* + sig \sigma
\Sigma Sigma (uppercase) Shift + Opt / Alt* + w \Sigma
\delta Delta Shift + Opt / Alt* + de \delta
\Delta Delta (uppercase) Shift + Opt / Alt* + ude \Delta
\theta Theta Shift + Opt / Alt* + th \theta
\Theta Theta (uppercase) Shift + Opt / Alt* + uth \Theta
\lambda Lambda Shift + Opt / Alt* + lbd \lambda
\phi Phi Shift + Opt / Alt* + ph \phi
\tau Tau Shift + Opt / Alt* + t \tau
\sin Sine Shift + Opt / Alt* + sin \sin
\cos Cosine Shift + Opt / Alt* + cos \cos
\tan Tangent Shift + Opt / Alt* + tan \tan
\arcsin Inverse sine Shift + Opt / Alt* + isin \arcsin
\arccos Inverse cosine Shift + Opt / Alt* + icos \arccos
\arctan Inverse tangent Shift + Opt / Alt* + itan \arctan
\intersection Intersection Shift + Opt / Alt* + ir \intersection
\union Union Shift + Opt / Alt* + un \union
\in Member of Shift + Opt / Alt* + mo \in
\notin Not member of Shift + Opt / Alt* + nmo \notin
\ni Contains Shift + Opt / Alt* + cs \ni
\subseteq Subset Shift + Opt / Alt* + sb \subseteq
\supseteq Superset Shift + Opt / Alt* + sp \supseteq
\subset Subset (strict) Shift + Opt / Alt* + ssb \subset
\supset Superset (strict) Shift + Opt / Alt* + ssp \supset
! Factorial ! !
\emptyset Empty set \emptyset
\angle Angle Shift + Opt / Alt* + ang \angle
\measuredangle Measure of angle Shift + Opt / Alt* + mang \measuredangle
\parallel Parallel to Shift + Opt / Alt* + pa \parallel
\nparallel Not parallel to Shift + Opt / Alt* + npa \nparallel
\sim Similar to Shift + Opt / Alt* + sm \sim
\cong Congruent to Shift + Opt / Alt* + cg \cong
\degree Degree symbol Shift + Opt / Alt* + dg \degree
\triangle Triangle Shift + Opt / Alt* + tri \triangle
\circledot Circle Shift + Opt / Alt* + cir \circledot
\parallelogram Parallelogram Shift + Opt / Alt* + par \parallelogram
\leftarrow Leftwards arrow Shift + Opt / Alt* + la \leftarrow
\rightarrow Rightwards arrow Shift + Opt / Alt* + ra \rightarrow
\leftrightarrow Left/right arrow Shift + Opt / Alt* + lr \leftrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow Long left/right arrow Shift + Opt / Alt* + llr \longleftrightarrow
\overrightarrow Ray Shift + Opt / Alt* + ry \overrightarrow{}
\overleftarrow Left ray Shift + Opt / Alt* + ry \overleftarrow{}
\overleftrightarrow Line Shift + Opt / Alt* + li \overleftrightarrow{}
\overline Line segment Shift + Opt / Alt* + li \overline{}
\longdiv Long division Shift + Opt / Alt* + ld \longdiv{}
\therefore Therefore Shift + Opt / Alt* + tf \therefore
\infinity Infinity Shift + Opt / Alt* + ift \infinity
\square Square Shift + Opt / Alt* + sqr \square
\begin{matrix}\end{matrix} Matrix Shift + Opt / Alt* + mx
\begin{pmatrix}\end{pmatrix} Matrix bounded by parentheses Shift + Opt / Alt* + px (☷)
\begin{bmatrix}\end{bmatrix} Matrix bounded by brackets Shift + Opt / Alt* + bx [☷]
\begin{Bmatrix}\end{Bmatrix} Matrix bounded by braces Shift + Opt / Alt* + bbx {☷}
\begin{vmatrix}\end{vmatrix} Matrix bounded by vertical lines Shift + Opt / Alt* + vx |☷|
\begin{Vmatrix}\end{Vmatrix} Matrix bounded by double vertical lines Shift + Opt / Alt* + vvx ‖☷‖
\ldots Horizontal dots (baseline) Shift + Opt / Alt* + ld \ldots
\cdots Horizontal dots (centered) Shift + Opt / Alt* + cd \cdots
\ddots Diagonal dots Shift + Opt / Alt* + dd \ddots
\vdots Vertical dots Shift + Opt / Alt* + vd \vdots
\cdot Dot multiplier \cdot
\cdotp Center dot (punctuation) \cdotp
Insert column (matrix) Shift + space
Insert row (matrix) Shift + enter
\text{g} Gram g g
\text{cg} Centigram cg cg
\text{kg} Kilogram kg kg
\text{mg} Milligram mg mg
\text{ng} Nanogram ng ng
\text{m} Meter m m
\text{cm} Centimeter cm cm
\text{km} Kilometer km km
\text{mm} Millimeter mm mm
\text{nm} Nanometer nm nm
\text{s} Second s s
\text{cs} Centisecond cs cs
\text{ks} Kilosecond ks ks
\text{ms} Millisecond ms ms
\text{ns} Nanosecond ns ns
\text{L} Liter L L
\text{mL} Millitliter mL mL
\text{µg} Microgram µg
\text{in} Inch in in
\text{ft} Foot ft ft
\text{mi} Mile mi mi
\text{fl oz} Fluid Ounce fl fl oz
\text{cup} Cup cup cup
\text{pt} Pint pt pt
\text{qt} Quart qt qt
\text{gal} Gallon gal gal
\text{oz} Ounce oz oz
\text{lb} Pound lb lb
\mug Microgram mug µg
\mus Microsecond mus µs
\mum Micrometer mum µm
\muL Microlitre muL µL
\text{mol} Mole mol mol
\frac{\text{g}}{\text{mol}} Molar mass gpm \frac{\text{g}}{\text{mol}}
\rightleftharpoons Right / left harpoons Shift + Opt / Alt* + rlh \rightleftharpoons
\ce{\bond{-}} Single bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + sib \ce{\bond{-}}
\ce{\bond{=}} Double bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + dob \ce{\bond{=}}
\ce{\bond{#}} Triple bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + trb \ce{\bond{#}}
\ce{\bond{...}} Three dot bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + tdb \ce{\bond{...}}
\ce{\bond{....}} Four dot bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + fdb \ce{\bond{....}}
\ce{\bond{->}} Right arrow bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + rgb \ce{\bond{->}}
\ce{\bond{<-}} Left arrow bond Shift + Opt / Alt* + lfb \ce{\bond{<-}}
' Single quote symbol Shift + Opt / Alt* + qs '

Unit symbols are also available for use in the formula toolbar.

* Different keystrokes depending on which operating system is used:

• OSX: Opt
• Windows: Alt